LERAN C PROGRAMMING

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User Defined Functions

In this tutorial, you will learn about different approaches you can take to solve the same problem using functions.


These 4 programs below check whether the integer entered by the user is a prime number or not.

The output of all these programs below is the same, and we have created a user-defined function in each example. However, the approach we have taken in each example is different.

Example 1: No arguments passed and no return value

Try this code »
#include <stdio.h>
void checkPrimeNumber();
int main()
{
    checkPrimeNumber();    // argument is not passed
    return 0;
}
// return type is void meaning doesn't return any value
void checkPrimeNumber()
{
    int n, i, flag = 0;
    printf("Enter a positive integer: ");
    scanf("%d",&n);
    for(i=2; i <= n/2; ++i)
    {
        if(n%i == 0)
        {
            flag = 1;
        }
    }
    if (flag == 1)
        printf("%d is not a prime number.", n);
    else
        printf("%d is a prime number.", n);
}
Explanation :

The checkPrimeNumber() function takes input from the user, checks whether it is a prime number or not and displays it on the screen.

The empty parentheses in checkPrimeNumber(); statement inside the main() function indicates that no argument is passed to the function.

The return type of the function is void. Hence, no value is returned from the function.

Example 2: No arguments passed but a return value

Try this code »
#include <stdio.h>
int getInteger();
int main()
{
    int n, i, flag = 0;
   // no argument is passed
    n = getInteger();    
    for(i=2; i<=n/2; ++i)
    {
        if(n%i==0){
            flag = 1;
            break;
        }
    }
    if (flag == 1)
        printf("%d is not a prime number.", n);
    else
        printf("%d is a prime number.", n);
    return 0;
}
// returns integer entered by the user
int getInteger()       
{
    int n;
    printf("Enter a positive integer: ");
    scanf("%d",&n);
    return n;
}
Explanation :

The empty parentheses in the n = getInteger(); statement indicates that no argument is passed to the function. And, the value returned from the function is assigned to n.

Here, the getInteger() function takes input from the user and returns it. The code to check whether a number is prime or not is inside the main() function.

Example 3: Arguments passed but no return value

Try this code »
#include <stdio.h>
void checkPrimeAndDisplay(int n);
int main()
{
    int n;
    printf("Enter a positive integer: ");
    scanf("%d",&n);
    // n is passed to the function
    checkPrimeAndDisplay(n);
    return 0;
}
// return type is void meaning doesn't return any value
void checkPrimeAndDisplay(int n) 
{
    int i, flag = 0;
    for(i=2; i <= n/2; ++i)
    {
        if(n%i == 0){
            flag = 1;
            break;
        }
    }
    if(flag == 1)
        printf("%d is not a prime number.",n);
    else
        printf("%d is a prime number.", n);
}
Explanation :

The integer value entered by the user is passed to the checkPrimeAndDisplay() function.

Here, the checkPrimeAndDisplay() function checks whether the argument passed is a prime number or not and displays the appropriate message.

Example 4: Arguments passed and a return value

Try this code »
#include <stdio.h>
int checkPrimeNumber(int n);
int main()
{
    int n, flag;
    printf("Enter a positive integer: ");
    scanf("%d",&n);
    // n is passed to the checkPrimeNumber() function
    // the returned value is assigned to the flag variable
    flag = checkPrimeNumber(n);
    if(flag == 1)
        printf("%d is not a prime number",n);
    else
        printf("%d is a prime number",n);
    return 0;
}
// int is returned from the function
int checkPrimeNumber(int n)
{
    int i;
    for(i=2; i <= n/2; ++i)
    {
        if(n%i == 0)
            return 1;
    }
    return 0;
}
Explanation :

The input from the user is passed to the checkPrimeNumber() function.

The checkPrimeNumber() function checks whether the passed argument is prime or not.

If the passed argument is a prime number, the function returns 0. If the passed argument is a non-prime number, the function returns 1. The return value is assigned to the flagvariable.

Depending on whether flag is 0 or 1, an appropriate message is printed from the main()function.



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