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HTML Entities

HTML Entities

Some characters are reserved in HTML.

If you use the less than (<) or greater than (>) signs in your text, the browser might mix them with tags.

Character entities are used to display reserved characters in HTML.

A character entity looks like this:





More Useful HTML Character Entities

Result Description Entity Name Entity Number
  non-breaking space &nbsp; &#160;
< less than &lt; &#60;
> greater than &gt; &#62;
& ampersand &amp; &#38;
" double quotation mark &quot; &#34;
' single quotation mark (apostrophe) &apos; &#39;
¢ cent &cent; &#162;
£ pound &pound; &#163;
¥ yen &yen; &#165;
euro &euro; &#8364;
© copyright &copy; &#169;
® registered trademark &reg; &#174;

Note: Entity names are case sensitive.

Combining Diacritical Marks

A diacritical mark is a "glyph" added to a letter.

Some diacritical marks, like grave (  ̀) and acute (  ́) are called accents.

Diacritical marks can appear both above and below a letter, inside a letter, and between two letters.

Diacritical marks can be used in combination with alphanumeric characters to produce a character that is not present in the character set (encoding) used in the page.

Here are some examples:

Mark Character Construct Result
 ̀ a a&#768;
 ́ a a&#769;
̂ a a&#770;
 ̃ a a&#771;
 ̀ O O&#768;
 ́ O O&#769;
̂ O O&#770;
 ̃ O O&#771;

Some Mathematical Symbols Supported by HTML

Char Number Entity Description
&#8704; &forall; FOR ALL
&#8707; &exist; THERE EXISTS
&#8709; &empty; EMPTY SETS
&#8711; &nabla; NABLA
&#8712; &isin; ELEMENT OF
&#8713; &notin; NOT AN ELEMENT OF
&#8719; &prod; N-ARY PRODUCT
&#8721; &sum; N-ARY SUMMATION

Note: Entities names are case sensitive! Check out HTML Character Entities reference for a complete list of character entities.

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