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What is URL

URL is the global address of documents and other resources on the World Wide Web. Its main purpose is to identify the location of a document and other web resources available on the Internet, and specify the mechanism for accessing it through a web browser.

For instance, if you look at the address bar of your browser you will see:


The URL Syntax

The general syntax of URLs is the following:


A URL has a linear structure and normally consists of some of the following:

  • Scheme name — The scheme identifies the protocol to be used to access the resource on the Internet. The scheme names followed by the three characters :// (a colon and two slashes). The most commonly used protocols are http://https://ftp://, and mailto://.
  • Host name — The host name identifies the host where resource is located. A hostname is a domain name assigned to a host computer. This is usually a combination of the host's local name with its parent domain's name. For example, www.tutorialrepublic.com consists of host's machine name www and the domain name tutorialrepublic.com.
  • Port Number — Servers often deliver more than one type of service, so you must also tell the server what service is being requested. These requests are made by port number. Well-known port numbers for a service are normally omitted from the URL. For example, web service HTTP is commonly delivered on port 80.
  • Path — The path identifies the specific resource within the host that the user wants to access. For example, /html/html-url.php
  • Query String — The query string contains data to be passed to server-side scripts, running on the web server. For example, parameters for a search. The query string preceded by a question mark, is usually a string of name and value pairs separated by ampersands, for example, ?first_name=John&last_name=Corner.
  • Fragment identifier — The fragment identifier, if present, specifies a part or a position within the overall resource or document. The fragment identifier introduced by a hash mark "#" is the optional last part of a URL for a document.
    When fragment identifier used with HTTP, it usually specifies a section or location within the page, and the browser may scroll to display that part of the page.

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